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This section is for all users of jOOQ 2.x who wish to upgrade to the next major release. In the next sub-sections, the most important changes are explained. Some code hints are also added to help you fix compilation errors.

Type-safe row value expressions

Support for row value expressions has been added in jOOQ 2.6. In jOOQ 3.0, many API parts were thoroughly (but often incompatibly) changed, in order to provide you with even more type-safety.

Here are some affected API parts:

  • [N] in Row[N] has been raised from 8 to 22. This means that existing row value expressions with degree >= 9 are now type-safe
  • Subqueries returned from now implement Select<Record[N]>, not Select<Record>
  • IN predicates and comparison predicates taking subselects changed incompatibly
  • INSERT and MERGE statements now take typesafe VALUES() clauses

Some hints related to row value expressions:

// SELECT statements are now more typesafe:
Record2<String, Integer> record         =, BOOK.ID).from(BOOK).where(ID.eq(1)).fetchOne();
Result<Record2<String, Integer>> result =, BOOK.ID).from(BOOK).fetch();

// But Record2 extends Record. You don't have to use the additional typesafety:
Record record    =, BOOK.ID).from(BOOK).where(ID.eq(1)).fetchOne();
Result<?> result =, BOOK.ID).from(BOOK).fetch();

SelectQuery and SelectXXXStep are now generic

In order to support type-safe row value expressions and type-safe Record[N] types, SelectQuery is now generic: SelectQuery<R>

SimpleSelectQuery and SimpleSelectXXXStep API were removed

The duplication of the SELECT API is no longer useful, now that SelectQuery and SelectXXXStep are generic.

Factory was split into DSL (query building) and DSLContext (query execution)

The pre-existing Factory class has been split into two parts:

  1. The DSL: This class contains only static factory methods. All QueryParts constructed from this class are "unattached", i.e. queries that are constructed through DSL cannot be executed immediately. This is useful for subqueries.
    The DSL class corresponds to the static part of the jOOQ 2.x Factory type
  2. The DSLContext: This type holds a reference to a Configuration and can construct executable ("attached") QueryParts.
    The DSLContext type corresponds to the non-static part of the jOOQ 2.x Factory / FactoryOperations type.

The FactoryOperations interface has been renamed to DSLContext. An example:

// jOOQ 2.6, check if there are any books
Factory create = new Factory(connection, dialect);
        create.selectFrom(BOOK) // Reuse the factory to create subselects
      ).fetch();                // Execute the "attached" query

// jOOQ 3.0
DSLContext create = DSL.using(connection, dialect);
        selectFrom(BOOK)        // Create a static subselect from the DSL
      ).fetch();                // Execute the "attached" query

Quantified comparison predicates

Field.equalAny(...) and similar methods have been removed in favour of Field.eq(any(...)). This greatly simplified the Field API. An example:

// jOOQ 2.6
Condition condition = BOOK.ID.equalAny(;

// jOOQ 3.0 adds some typesafety to comparison predicates involving quantified selects
QuantifiedSelect<Record1<Integer>> subselect = any(select(BOOK.ID).from(BOOK));
Condition condition = BOOK.ID.eq(subselect);


The FieldProvider marker interface was removed. Its methods still exist on FieldProvider subtypes. Note, they have changed names from getField() to field() and from getIndex() to indexOf()


GroupField has been introduced as a DSL marker interface to denote fields that can be passed to GROUP BY clauses. This includes all org.jooq.Field types. However, fields obtained from ROLLUP(), CUBE(), and GROUPING SETS() functions no longer implement Field. Instead, they only implement GroupField. An example:

// jOOQ 2.6
Field<?>   field1a = Factory.rollup(...); // OK
Field<?>   field2a =;       // OK

// jOOQ 3.0
GroupField field1b = DSL.rollup(...); // OK
Field<?>   field1c = DSL.rollup(...); // Compilation error
GroupField field2b =;       // OK
Field<?>   field2c =;       // OK

NULL predicate

Beware! Previously, Field.eq(null) was translated internally to an IS NULL predicate. This is no longer the case. Binding Java "null" to a comparison predicate will result in a regular comparison predicate (which never returns true). This was changed for several reasons:

  • To most users, this was a surprising "feature".
  • Other predicates didn't behave in such a way, e.g. the IN predicate, the BETWEEN predicate, or the LIKE predicate.
  • Variable binding behaved unpredictably, as IS NULL predicates don't bind any variables.
  • The generated SQL depended on the possible combinations of bind values, which creates unnecessary hard-parses every time a new unique SQL statement is rendered.

Here is an example how to check if a field has a given value, without applying SQL's ternary NULL logic:

String possiblyNull = null; // Or else...

// jOOQ 2.6
Condition condition1 = BOOK.TITLE.eq(possiblyNull);

// jOOQ 3.0
Condition condition2 = BOOK.TITLE.eq(possiblyNull).or(BOOK.TITLE.isNull().and(val(possiblyNull).isNull()));
Condition condition3 = BOOK.TITLE.isNotDistinctFrom(possiblyNull);


DSLContext, ExecuteContext, RenderContext, BindContext no longer extend Configuration for "convenience". From jOOQ 3.0 onwards, composition is chosen over inheritance as these objects are not really configurations. Most importantly

  • DSLContext is only a DSL entry point for constructing "attached" QueryParts
  • ExecuteContext has a well-defined lifecycle, tied to that of a single query execution
  • RenderContext has a well-defined lifecycle, tied to that of a single rendering operation
  • BindContext has a well-defined lifecycle, tied to that of a single variable binding operation

In order to resolve confusion that used to arise because of different lifecycle durations, these types are now no longer formally connected through inheritance.


In order to allow for simpler connection / data source management, jOOQ externalised connection handling in a new ConnectionProvider type. The previous two connection modes are maintained backwards-compatibly (JDBC standalone connection mode, pooled DataSource mode). Other connection modes can be injected using:

public interface ConnectionProvider {

    // Provide jOOQ with a connection
    Connection acquire() throws DataAccessException;
    // Get a connection back from jOOQ
    void release(Connection connection) throws DataAccessException;

These are some side-effects of the above change

  • Connection-related JDBC wrapper utility methods (commit, rollback, etc) have been moved to the new DefaultConnectionProvider. They're no longer available from the DSLContext. This had been confusing to some users who called upon these methods while operating in pool DataSource mode.


ExecuteListeners can no longer be configured via Settings. Instead they have to be injected into the Configuration. This resolves many class loader issues that were encountered before. It also helps listener implementations control their lifecycles themselves.

Data type API

The data type API has been changed drastically in order to enable some new DataType-related features. These changes include:

  • [SQLDialect]DataType and SQLDataType no longer implement DataType. They're mere constant containers
  • Various minor API changes have been done.

Object renames

These objects have been moved / renamed:

  • jOOU: a library used to represent unsigned integer types was moved from org.jooq.util.unsigned to org.jooq.util.types (which already contained INTERVAL data types)

Feature removals

Here are some minor features that have been removed in jOOQ 3.0

  • The ant task for code generation was removed, as it was not up to date at all. Code generation through ant can be performed easily by calling jOOQ's GenerationTool through a <java> target.
  • The navigation methods and "foreign key setters" are no longer generated in Record classes, as they are useful only to few users and the generated code is very collision-prone.
  • The code generation configuration no longer accepts comma-separated regular expressions. Use the regex pipe | instead.
  • The code generation configuration can no longer be loaded from .properties files. Only XML configurations are supported.
  • The master data type feature is no longer supported. This feature was unlikely to behave exactly as users expected. It is better if users write their own code generators to generate master enum data types from their database tables. jOOQ's enum mapping and converter features sufficiently cover interacting with such user-defined types.
  • The DSL subtypes are no longer instanciable. As DSL now only contains static methods, subclassing is no longer useful. There are still dialect-specific DSL types providing static methods for dialect-specific functions. But the code-generator no longer generates a schema-specific DSL
  • The concept of a "main key" is no longer supported. The code generator produces UpdatableRecords only if the underlying table has a PRIMARY KEY. The reason for this removal is the fact that "main keys" are not reliable enough. They were chosen arbitrarily among UNIQUE KEYs.
  • The UpdatableTable type has been removed. While adding significant complexity to the type hierarchy, this type adds not much value over a simple Table.getPrimaryKey() != null check.
  • The USE statement support has been removed from jOOQ. Its behaviour was ill-defined, while it didn't work the same way (or didn't work at all) in some databases.
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