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UPDATE .. FROM

Applies to ✅ Open Source Edition   ✅ Express Edition   ✅ Professional Edition   ✅ Enterprise Edition

Some databases, including for example PostgreSQL and SQL Server, support joining additional tables to an UPDATE statement using a vendor-specific FROM clause. This is supported as well by jOOQ:

UPDATE BOOK_ARCHIVE
SET
  BOOK_ARCHIVE.TITLE = BOOK.TITLE
FROM BOOK
WHERE BOOK_ARCHIVE.ID = BOOK.ID
create.update(BOOK_ARCHIVE)
      .set(BOOK_ARCHIVE.TITLE, BOOK.TITLE)
      .from(BOOK)
      .where(BOOK_ARCHIVE.ID.eq(BOOK.ID))
      .execute();

In many cases, such a joined update statement can be emulated using a correlated subquery, or using updatable views. For example, most databases allow for using scalar subselects in UPDATE statements in one way or another. jOOQ models this through a set(Field<T>, Select<? extends Record1<T>>) method in the UPDATE DSL API, for convenience (see the section about scalar subqueries for more details):

UPDATE AUTHOR
   SET FIRST_NAME = (
         SELECT FIRST_NAME
         FROM PERSON
         WHERE PERSON.ID = AUTHOR.ID
       ),
 WHERE ID = 3;
 
create.update(AUTHOR)
      .set(AUTHOR.FIRST_NAME,
         select(PERSON.FIRST_NAME)
        .from(PERSON)
        .where(PERSON.ID.eq(AUTHOR.ID))
      )
      .where(AUTHOR.ID.eq(3))
      .execute();

Dialect support

This example using jOOQ:

update(BOOK_TO_BOOK_STORE).set(BOOK_TO_BOOK_STORE.STOCK, 0).from(BOOK).where(BOOK_TO_BOOK_STORE.BOOK_ID.eq(BOOK.ID)).and(BOOK.AUTHOR_ID.eq(1))

Translates to the following dialect specific expressions:

ASE, BigQuery, Oracle, SQLServer, Sybase

UPDATE BOOK_TO_BOOK_STORE
SET
  BOOK_TO_BOOK_STORE.STOCK = 0
FROM BOOK
WHERE (
  BOOK_TO_BOOK_STORE.BOOK_ID = BOOK.ID
  AND BOOK.AUTHOR_ID = 1
)

Aurora MySQL, MariaDB, MemSQL, MySQL, Trino

UPDATE BOOK_TO_BOOK_STORE
  CROSS JOIN BOOK
SET
  BOOK_TO_BOOK_STORE.STOCK = 0
WHERE (
  BOOK_TO_BOOK_STORE.BOOK_ID = BOOK.ID
  AND BOOK.AUTHOR_ID = 1
)

Aurora Postgres, CockroachDB, DuckDB, Postgres, SQLite, Snowflake

UPDATE BOOK_TO_BOOK_STORE
SET
  STOCK = 0
FROM BOOK
WHERE (
  BOOK_TO_BOOK_STORE.BOOK_ID = BOOK.ID
  AND BOOK.AUTHOR_ID = 1
)

ClickHouse

UPDATE BOOK_TO_BOOK_STORE
SET
  STOCK = 0
WHERE (NAME, BOOK_ID) IN (
  SELECT BOOK_TO_BOOK_STORE.NAME, BOOK_TO_BOOK_STORE.BOOK_ID
  FROM BOOK_TO_BOOK_STORE, BOOK
  WHERE (
    BOOK_TO_BOOK_STORE.BOOK_ID = BOOK.ID
    AND BOOK.AUTHOR_ID = 1
  )
)

DB2, Derby, Exasol, Firebird, H2, HSQLDB

MERGE INTO BOOK_TO_BOOK_STORE
USING BOOK
ON (
  BOOK_TO_BOOK_STORE.BOOK_ID = BOOK.ID
  AND BOOK.AUTHOR_ID = 1
)
WHEN MATCHED THEN UPDATE SET
  BOOK_TO_BOOK_STORE.STOCK = 0

Hana

UPDATE BOOK_TO_BOOK_STORE
FROM BOOK_TO_BOOK_STORE, BOOK
SET
  BOOK_TO_BOOK_STORE.STOCK = 0
WHERE (
  BOOK_TO_BOOK_STORE.BOOK_ID = BOOK.ID
  AND BOOK.AUTHOR_ID = 1
)

Redshift, YugabyteDB

UPDATE BOOK_TO_BOOK_STORE
SET
  STOCK = 0
WHERE (BOOK_TO_BOOK_STORE.NAME, BOOK_TO_BOOK_STORE.BOOK_ID) IN (
  SELECT BOOK_TO_BOOK_STORE.NAME, BOOK_TO_BOOK_STORE.BOOK_ID
  FROM BOOK_TO_BOOK_STORE, BOOK
  WHERE (
    BOOK_TO_BOOK_STORE.BOOK_ID = BOOK.ID
    AND BOOK.AUTHOR_ID = 1
  )
)

SQLDataWarehouse

UPDATE BOOK_TO_BOOK_STORE
SET
  BOOK_TO_BOOK_STORE.STOCK = 0
WHERE EXISTS (
  SELECT alias_1.v0, alias_1.v1
  FROM (
    SELECT
      BOOK_TO_BOOK_STORE.NAME v0,
      BOOK_TO_BOOK_STORE.BOOK_ID v1
    FROM BOOK_TO_BOOK_STORE, BOOK
    WHERE (
      BOOK_TO_BOOK_STORE.BOOK_ID = BOOK.ID
      AND BOOK.AUTHOR_ID = 1
    )
  ) alias_1
  WHERE (
    BOOK_TO_BOOK_STORE.NAME = alias_1.v0
    AND BOOK_TO_BOOK_STORE.BOOK_ID = alias_1.v1
  )
)

Teradata, Vertica

MERGE INTO BOOK_TO_BOOK_STORE
USING BOOK
ON (
  BOOK_TO_BOOK_STORE.BOOK_ID = BOOK.ID
  AND BOOK.AUTHOR_ID = 1
)
WHEN MATCHED THEN UPDATE SET
  STOCK = 0

Access, Informix

/* UNSUPPORTED */
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