Available in versions: Dev (3.19) | Latest (3.18)

This is experimental functionality, and as such subject to change. Use at your own risk!

Concatenation in predicates

Applies to ❌ Open Source Edition   ✅ Express Edition   ✅ Professional Edition   ✅ Enterprise Edition

The SPI method handling this event is consecutiveAggregation()

Using CONCAT inside of predicate is often a sign of potentially slow and/or wrong queries.

Why is it bad?

Ordinary indexes cannot be used this way. Even if it's possible to define function based indexes that cover such a predicate, it's usually better not to use concatenation in predicates because:

  • Ordinary indexes on concatenated columns are more likely to be reusable by other queries.
  • Unless there's a separation token that is known not to be present in actual data, these concatenations produce the same value: 'John Taylor' || 'Doe' and 'John' || 'Taylor Doe'. But they might be different first and last names.

An example is given here:

// A custom DiagnosticsListener SPI implementation
class ConcatenationInPredicate extends DefaultDiagnosticsListener {
    public void concatenationInPredicate(DiagnosticsContext ctx) {
        // The statement that is being executed and which has a concatenation in a predicate.
        System.out.println("Actual statement: " + ctx.actualStatement());
        // The predicate containing the concatenation.
        System.out.println("Predicate       : " + ctx.part());

// Configuration is configured with the target DataSource, SQLDialect, etc. for instance Oracle.
try (
    Connection c = DSL.using(configuration.derive(new ConcatenationInPredicate()))
    Statement s = c.createStatement()
) {
    try (ResultSet a = s.executeQuery("SELECT id FROM author WHERE first_name || last_name = ?")) {
        while (a.next())


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