Available in versions: Dev (3.20) | Latest (3.19) | 3.18 | 3.17

INSERT .. ON CONFLICT .. EXCLUDED

Applies to ✅ Open Source Edition   ✅ Express Edition   ✅ Professional Edition   ✅ Enterprise Edition

A special use-case for INSERT .. ON CONFLICT is an UPSERT statement where all (or most of) the values to be updated are the same values that would have been inserted if there wasn't a conflict - with the exception of primary keys. In PostgreSQL, this is done using the EXCLUDED pseudo table. The keyword should be read as "rows that have been excluded from the INSERT part of the statement."

// Add a new author called "Koontz" with ID 3.
// If that ID is already present, update the author's name
create.insertInto(AUTHOR, AUTHOR.ID, AUTHOR.LAST_NAME)
      .values(3, "Koontz")
      .onConflict(AUTHOR.ID)
      .doUpdate()
      .set(AUTHOR.LAST_NAME, excluded(AUTHOR.LAST_NAME))
      .execute();

Dialect support

This example using jOOQ:

insertInto(AUTHOR, AUTHOR.ID, AUTHOR.LAST_NAME).values(3, "X").onConflict(AUTHOR.ID).doUpdate().set(AUTHOR.LAST_NAME, excluded(AUTHOR.LAST_NAME))

Translates to the following dialect specific expressions:

Aurora Postgres, CockroachDB, DuckDB, Postgres, SQLite, YugabyteDB

INSERT INTO AUTHOR (ID, LAST_NAME)
VALUES (
  3, 
  'X'
)
ON CONFLICT (ID)
DO UPDATE
SET
  LAST_NAME = excluded.LAST_NAME

DB2

MERGE INTO AUTHOR
USING (
  SELECT 3, 'X'
  FROM SYSIBM.DUAL
) t (ID, LAST_NAME)
ON AUTHOR.ID = t.ID
WHEN MATCHED THEN UPDATE SET
  AUTHOR.LAST_NAME = t.LAST_NAME
WHEN NOT MATCHED THEN INSERT (ID, LAST_NAME)
VALUES (
  t.ID, 
  t.LAST_NAME
)

Derby

MERGE INTO AUTHOR
USING SYSIBM.SYSDUMMY1
ON AUTHOR.ID = 3
WHEN MATCHED THEN UPDATE SET
  AUTHOR.LAST_NAME = 'X'
WHEN NOT MATCHED THEN INSERT (ID, LAST_NAME)
VALUES (
  3, 
  'X'
)

Exasol

MERGE INTO AUTHOR
USING (
  SELECT 3, 'X'
) t (ID, LAST_NAME)
ON AUTHOR.ID = t.ID
WHEN MATCHED THEN UPDATE SET
  AUTHOR.LAST_NAME = t.LAST_NAME
WHEN NOT MATCHED THEN INSERT (ID, LAST_NAME)
VALUES (
  t.ID, 
  t.LAST_NAME
)

Firebird

MERGE INTO AUTHOR
USING (
  SELECT 3, 'X'
  FROM RDB$DATABASE
) t (ID, LAST_NAME)
ON AUTHOR.ID = t.ID
WHEN MATCHED THEN UPDATE SET
  AUTHOR.LAST_NAME = t.LAST_NAME
WHEN NOT MATCHED THEN INSERT (ID, LAST_NAME)
VALUES (
  t.ID, 
  t.LAST_NAME
)

H2

MERGE INTO AUTHOR
USING (
  SELECT
    3 ID,
    'X' LAST_NAME
) t
ON AUTHOR.ID = t.ID
WHEN MATCHED THEN UPDATE SET
  AUTHOR.LAST_NAME = t.LAST_NAME
WHEN NOT MATCHED THEN INSERT (ID, LAST_NAME)
VALUES (
  t.ID, 
  t.LAST_NAME
)

Hana

MERGE INTO AUTHOR
USING (
  (
    SELECT
      3 ID,
      'X' LAST_NAME
    FROM SYS.DUMMY
  )
) t
ON AUTHOR.ID = t.ID
WHEN MATCHED THEN UPDATE SET
  AUTHOR.LAST_NAME = t.LAST_NAME
WHEN NOT MATCHED THEN INSERT (ID, LAST_NAME)
VALUES (
  t.ID, 
  t.LAST_NAME
)

HSQLDB

MERGE INTO AUTHOR
USING (
  SELECT 3, 'X'
  FROM (VALUES(1)) AS dual(dual)
) t (ID, LAST_NAME)
ON AUTHOR.ID = t.ID
WHEN MATCHED THEN UPDATE SET
  AUTHOR.LAST_NAME = t.LAST_NAME
WHEN NOT MATCHED THEN INSERT (ID, LAST_NAME)
VALUES (
  t.ID, 
  t.LAST_NAME
)

Oracle

MERGE INTO AUTHOR
USING (
  (
    SELECT
      3 ID,
      'X' LAST_NAME
  )
) t
ON (AUTHOR.ID = t.ID)
WHEN MATCHED THEN UPDATE SET
  AUTHOR.LAST_NAME = t.LAST_NAME
WHEN NOT MATCHED THEN INSERT (ID, LAST_NAME)
VALUES (
  t.ID, 
  t.LAST_NAME
)

SQLServer

MERGE INTO AUTHOR
USING (
  SELECT 3, 'X'
) t (ID, LAST_NAME)
ON AUTHOR.ID = t.ID
WHEN MATCHED THEN UPDATE SET
  AUTHOR.LAST_NAME = t.LAST_NAME
WHEN NOT MATCHED THEN INSERT (ID, LAST_NAME)
VALUES (
  t.ID, 
  t.LAST_NAME
);

Sybase

MERGE INTO AUTHOR
USING (
  SELECT 3, 'X'
  FROM SYS.DUMMY
) t (ID, LAST_NAME)
ON AUTHOR.ID = t.ID
WHEN MATCHED THEN UPDATE SET
  AUTHOR.LAST_NAME = t.LAST_NAME
WHEN NOT MATCHED THEN INSERT (ID, LAST_NAME)
VALUES (
  t.ID, 
  t.LAST_NAME
)

Teradata

MERGE INTO AUTHOR
USING (
  SELECT 3, 'X'
  FROM (
    SELECT 1 AS "dual"
  ) AS "dual"
) t (ID, LAST_NAME)
ON AUTHOR.ID = t.ID
WHEN MATCHED THEN UPDATE SET
  LAST_NAME = t.LAST_NAME
WHEN NOT MATCHED THEN INSERT (ID, LAST_NAME)
VALUES (
  t.ID, 
  t.LAST_NAME
)

ASE, Access, Aurora MySQL, BigQuery, Informix, MariaDB, MemSQL, MySQL, Redshift, SQLDataWarehouse, Snowflake, Trino, Vertica

/* UNSUPPORTED */

(These are currently generated with jOOQ 3.20, see #10141), or translate your own on our website

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