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INSERT .. ON CONFLICT

Applies to ✅ Open Source Edition   ✅ Express Edition   ✅ Professional Edition   ✅ Enterprise Edition

The PostgreSQL database offers an alternative syntax to MySQL's vendor specific INSERT .. ON DUPLICATE KEY syntax, which allows for specifying an explicit (reference by constraint name) or implicit (reference by column list) unique constraint for conflict resolution.

// Add a new author called "Koontz" with ID 3.
// If that ID is already present, update the author's name
create.insertInto(AUTHOR, AUTHOR.ID, AUTHOR.LAST_NAME)
      .values(3, "Koontz")
      .onConflict(AUTHOR.ID)
      .doUpdate()
      .set(AUTHOR.LAST_NAME, "Koontz")
      .execute();

Dialect support

This example using jOOQ:

insertInto(AUTHOR, AUTHOR.ID, AUTHOR.LAST_NAME).values(3, "X").onConflict(AUTHOR.ID).doUpdate().set(AUTHOR.LAST_NAME, "X")

Translates to the following dialect specific expressions:

Aurora Postgres, CockroachDB, DuckDB, Postgres, SQLite, YugabyteDB

INSERT INTO AUTHOR (ID, LAST_NAME)
VALUES (
  3, 
  'X'
)
ON CONFLICT (ID)
DO UPDATE
SET
  LAST_NAME = 'X'

DB2

MERGE INTO AUTHOR
USING (
  SELECT 3, 'X'
  FROM SYSIBM.DUAL
) t (ID, LAST_NAME)
ON AUTHOR.ID = t.ID
WHEN MATCHED THEN UPDATE SET
  AUTHOR.LAST_NAME = 'X'
WHEN NOT MATCHED THEN INSERT (ID, LAST_NAME)
VALUES (
  t.ID, 
  t.LAST_NAME
)

Derby

MERGE INTO AUTHOR
USING SYSIBM.SYSDUMMY1
ON AUTHOR.ID = 3
WHEN MATCHED THEN UPDATE SET
  AUTHOR.LAST_NAME = 'X'
WHEN NOT MATCHED THEN INSERT (ID, LAST_NAME)
VALUES (
  3, 
  'X'
)

Exasol

MERGE INTO AUTHOR
USING (
  SELECT 3, 'X'
) t (ID, LAST_NAME)
ON AUTHOR.ID = t.ID
WHEN MATCHED THEN UPDATE SET
  AUTHOR.LAST_NAME = 'X'
WHEN NOT MATCHED THEN INSERT (ID, LAST_NAME)
VALUES (
  t.ID, 
  t.LAST_NAME
)

Firebird

MERGE INTO AUTHOR
USING (
  SELECT 3, 'X'
  FROM RDB$DATABASE
) t (ID, LAST_NAME)
ON AUTHOR.ID = t.ID
WHEN MATCHED THEN UPDATE SET
  AUTHOR.LAST_NAME = 'X'
WHEN NOT MATCHED THEN INSERT (ID, LAST_NAME)
VALUES (
  t.ID, 
  t.LAST_NAME
)

H2

MERGE INTO AUTHOR
USING (
  SELECT
    3 ID,
    'X' LAST_NAME
) t
ON AUTHOR.ID = t.ID
WHEN MATCHED THEN UPDATE SET
  AUTHOR.LAST_NAME = 'X'
WHEN NOT MATCHED THEN INSERT (ID, LAST_NAME)
VALUES (
  t.ID, 
  t.LAST_NAME
)

Hana

MERGE INTO AUTHOR
USING (
  (
    SELECT
      3 ID,
      'X' LAST_NAME
    FROM SYS.DUMMY
  )
) t
ON AUTHOR.ID = t.ID
WHEN MATCHED THEN UPDATE SET
  AUTHOR.LAST_NAME = 'X'
WHEN NOT MATCHED THEN INSERT (ID, LAST_NAME)
VALUES (
  t.ID, 
  t.LAST_NAME
)

HSQLDB

MERGE INTO AUTHOR
USING (
  SELECT 3, 'X'
  FROM (VALUES(1)) AS dual(dual)
) t (ID, LAST_NAME)
ON AUTHOR.ID = t.ID
WHEN MATCHED THEN UPDATE SET
  AUTHOR.LAST_NAME = 'X'
WHEN NOT MATCHED THEN INSERT (ID, LAST_NAME)
VALUES (
  t.ID, 
  t.LAST_NAME
)

Oracle

MERGE INTO AUTHOR
USING (
  (
    SELECT
      3 ID,
      'X' LAST_NAME
  )
) t
ON (AUTHOR.ID = t.ID)
WHEN MATCHED THEN UPDATE SET
  AUTHOR.LAST_NAME = 'X'
WHEN NOT MATCHED THEN INSERT (ID, LAST_NAME)
VALUES (
  t.ID, 
  t.LAST_NAME
)

SQLServer

MERGE INTO AUTHOR
USING (
  SELECT 3, 'X'
) t (ID, LAST_NAME)
ON AUTHOR.ID = t.ID
WHEN MATCHED THEN UPDATE SET
  AUTHOR.LAST_NAME = 'X'
WHEN NOT MATCHED THEN INSERT (ID, LAST_NAME)
VALUES (
  t.ID, 
  t.LAST_NAME
);

Sybase

MERGE INTO AUTHOR
USING (
  SELECT 3, 'X'
  FROM SYS.DUMMY
) t (ID, LAST_NAME)
ON AUTHOR.ID = t.ID
WHEN MATCHED THEN UPDATE SET
  AUTHOR.LAST_NAME = 'X'
WHEN NOT MATCHED THEN INSERT (ID, LAST_NAME)
VALUES (
  t.ID, 
  t.LAST_NAME
)

Teradata

MERGE INTO AUTHOR
USING (
  SELECT 3, 'X'
  FROM (
    SELECT 1 AS "dual"
  ) AS "dual"
) t (ID, LAST_NAME)
ON AUTHOR.ID = t.ID
WHEN MATCHED THEN UPDATE SET
  LAST_NAME = 'X'
WHEN NOT MATCHED THEN INSERT (ID, LAST_NAME)
VALUES (
  t.ID, 
  t.LAST_NAME
)

ASE, Access, Aurora MySQL, BigQuery, Informix, MariaDB, MemSQL, MySQL, Redshift, SQLDataWarehouse, Snowflake, Trino, Vertica

/* UNSUPPORTED */

(These are currently generated with jOOQ 3.20, see #10141), or translate your own on our website

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