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EXCEPT

Applies to ✅ Open Source Edition   ✅ Express Edition   ✅ Professional Edition   ✅ Enterprise Edition

EXCEPT (or MINUS in Oracle) is the operation that returns only those values that are returned exclusively in the first subselect. By default, this removes duplicate rows. Use EXCEPT ALL in order to retain them, and require duplicates to appear in both subqueries.

SELECT ID FROM BOOK
EXCEPT ALL
SELECT ID FROM AUTHOR
 
create.select(BOOK.ID).from(BOOK)
      .exceptAll(
create.select(AUTHOR.ID).from(AUTHOR))
      .fetch();

Dialect support

This example using jOOQ:

select(BOOK.ID).from(BOOK).except(select(AUTHOR.ID).from(AUTHOR)).orderBy(BOOK.ID)

Translates to the following dialect specific expressions:

ASE, Aurora Postgres, CockroachDB, DB2, Derby, DuckDB, Exasol, H2, HSQLDB, Hana, Informix, MariaDB, MySQL, Postgres, SQLDataWarehouse, SQLServer, SQLite, Snowflake, Sybase, Teradata, Trino, Vertica, YugabyteDB

SELECT BOOK.ID
FROM BOOK
EXCEPT
SELECT AUTHOR.ID
FROM AUTHOR
ORDER BY ID

BigQuery

SELECT BOOK.ID
FROM BOOK
EXCEPT DISTINCT
SELECT AUTHOR.ID
FROM AUTHOR
ORDER BY ID

MemSQL

SELECT 
  t.*
FROM (
  SELECT BOOK.ID
  FROM BOOK
  EXCEPT
  SELECT AUTHOR.ID
  FROM AUTHOR
) t
ORDER BY ID

Oracle

SELECT BOOK.ID
FROM BOOK
MINUS
SELECT AUTHOR.ID
FROM AUTHOR
ORDER BY ID

Access, Aurora MySQL, Firebird, Redshift

/* UNSUPPORTED */

(These are currently generated with jOOQ 3.20, see #10141), or translate your own on our website

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