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UNION

Applies to ✅ Open Source Edition   ✅ Express Edition   ✅ Professional Edition   ✅ Enterprise Edition

A UNION operation combines two subquery results of compatible row type into a single result. While UNION removes all duplicate records resulting from this combination, UNION ALL leaves subselect results as they are. Typically, you should prefer UNION ALL over UNION, if you don't really need to remove duplicates, see also this section of the manual. The following example shows how to use such a UNION operation in jOOQ.

SELECT * FROM BOOK WHERE ID = 3
UNION ALL
SELECT * FROM BOOK WHERE ID = 5
 
create.selectFrom(BOOK).where(BOOK.ID.eq(3))
      .unionAll(
create.selectFrom(BOOK).where(BOOK.ID.eq(5)))
      .fetch();

Dialect support

This example using jOOQ:

select(BOOK.ID).from(BOOK).union(select(AUTHOR.ID).from(AUTHOR)).orderBy(BOOK.ID)

Translates to the following dialect specific expressions:

ASE, Access, Aurora MySQL, Aurora Postgres, CockroachDB, DB2, Derby, DuckDB, Exasol, H2, HSQLDB, Hana, Informix, MariaDB, MySQL, Oracle, Postgres, Redshift, SQLDataWarehouse, SQLServer, SQLite, Snowflake, Sybase, Teradata, Trino, Vertica, YugabyteDB

SELECT BOOK.ID
FROM BOOK
UNION
SELECT AUTHOR.ID
FROM AUTHOR
ORDER BY ID

BigQuery

SELECT BOOK.ID
FROM BOOK
UNION DISTINCT
SELECT AUTHOR.ID
FROM AUTHOR
ORDER BY ID

Firebird

SELECT BOOK.ID
FROM BOOK
UNION
SELECT AUTHOR.ID
FROM AUTHOR
ORDER BY 1

MemSQL

SELECT 
  t.*
FROM (
  SELECT BOOK.ID
  FROM BOOK
  UNION
  SELECT AUTHOR.ID
  FROM AUTHOR
) t
ORDER BY ID

(These are currently generated with jOOQ 3.20, see #10141), or translate your own on our website

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